While you’ll never need any special vaccinations to visit mainland France, there are many places in the world where vaccinations are recommended or required.
No need to go to your French doctor for this (although that’s also an option), anyone can show up with or without an appointment to the Air France Centre de Vaccinations Internationales and request all of the travel-specific vaccinations (Hepatitis A, Yellow Fever, Typhoid Fever, Cholera) as well as the ones recommended to have up to date even if you’re not traveling (tetanus, measles-mumps-rubella, flu).
Located at 38 quai de Jemmapes, 10th (Métro République, exit 4 Rue du Faubourg-du-Temple), the center is open Mon-Sat from 8:45am-6pm (until 8pm Thurs, 4pm Sat). The website is only in French, but if you don’t want to risk waiting you can make an appointment online. Otherwise you take a number and wait your turn. The waiting room has Air France inflight magazines, airline seat chairs (economy class), and even a vending machine with travel kit items like mosquito repellent.
Bring along your proof of ID (required) and your vaccination carnet if you have it, otherwise they give you one with the vaccination stamps inside (in French and English). The vaccinations given at the travel center are not reimbursed by French Social Security (certain shots like tetanus are reimbursed but only if done at your doctor’s office), all of the prices are listed on the website, ranging from €12-€125 (most are in the €35-€60 range).
Note that they can also deal with other travel-related health requirements like post-trip checkups or overseas adoption health certificates. Everything is in French on the website, but they do speak enough English if you’re not fluent.
Another option is the Institut Pasteur, which is where I get my vaccinations done. There are often shortages for certain vaccines, and sometimes the Air France center runs out – whereas the Institut Pasteur is state funded so they are considered "prioritaire" and get first dibs. For example, right now Hep A & Hep B are running short, and Pasteur is more likely to be able to get you at least the first of the series of shots than AF. Besides that though, their services & costs are very similar. It might be a little outdated, but in case anyone is interested, I wrote a post on one of our trips there a few years back: http://totallyfrenchedout.blogspot.fr/2013/02/tb-or-not-tb-that-is-question.html